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Since the dawn of history assistive technologies have helped us overcome all manner of disabilities and lead more fulfilling lives, however the technologies available are far from ideal. Researchers at UCL have been exploring the potential of shape-morphing smart materials as a basis for soft-robotic assistive exoskeletons. In this talk Mark covers assistive devices, artificial muscles, architectured materials and advanced 3D printing techniques and offers a glimpse of a future where the wheelchair has become a thing of the past.
Mark is a researcher and inventor currently working towards a PhD at UCL. Originally trained as a mathematician, he began his scientific career modelling viral dynamics at Pfizer and has focused on finding creative applications of mathematics to a range of problems in healthcare ever since. He teaches a masters module on innovation, design and prototyping of assistive devices and has served as a communicator and consultant for both the European Commission and the BBC.
This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
What is RUMBLE STRIP? What does RUMBLE STRIP mean? RUMBLE STRIP meaning – RUMBLE STRIP definition – RUMBLE STRIP explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
Rumble strips, also known as sleeper lines, rumple strips, alert strips, audible lines, “the corduroy”, growlers, “drift lines”, “drunk bumps”, and “woo woo” boards, are a road safety feature to alert inattentive drivers of potential danger, by causing a tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels into the vehicle interior. A rumble strip is applied along the direction of travel following an edgeline or centerline, to alert drivers when they drift from their lane. Rumble strips may also be installed in a series across the direction of travel, to warn drivers of a stop or slowdown ahead, or of an approaching danger spot.
In favorable circumstances, rumble strips are effective (and cost-effective) at reducing accidents due to inattention. The effectiveness of shoulder rumble strips is largely dependent on a wide and stable road shoulder for a recovery, but there are several other less obvious factors to consider during design.
Rumble strips are divided into transverse rumble strips, shoulder rumble strips, and centerline rumble strips, depending on how they are used.
Transverse rumble strips are placed in the travel lanes where most if not all vehicles will cross them. They are used to alert the driver of an upcoming intersection, toll booth or similar hazard. They may cross the entire road from shoulder to shoulder, or they may only be in the wheel paths.
Shoulder and centerline rumble strips are used to reduce lane departure crashes. Centerline rumble strips are used on undivided highways to reduce cross-over incidents and resultant head-on collisions. Shoulder rumble strips are used primarily to reduce run-off-road collisions. They alert distracted or drowsy drivers that they are leaving the roadway or crossing the centerline of the road. In this application, they are narrower and outside of the wheelpaths.
There are several different ways to install rumble strips:
Rolled-in, applied to newly laid asphalt pavement while it is still warm and moldable.
Milled-in, applied to existing hardened asphalt or concrete roads.
Formed, a corrugated form is pressed into fresh concrete.
Raised plastic or ceramic units, fastened to asphalt or concrete pavement and often with a reflector built into the edge. Botts’ dots are a common installation.
Profiled thermoplastic markings are created by fusing thermoplastic to the pavement and create alternating elevation and recession pattern. This can be done as inverted-profile markings or raised-profile markings. Inverted-profile markings are created by pressing a cog rolling over the markings while they are wet to make them corrugated. Raised-profile markings are created by extruding extra thickness of thermoplastic at a specific interval to create bumps. Raised-profile markings are sometime known as convex traffic lines.
“Smart car” virtual shoulder rumble strips, referred to as a lane departure warning system, available on luxury vehicles and commercial trucks. The alarm is similar to the sound produced when striking rumble strips.
“Smart car” virtual transverse rumble strips to prevent cross-path crashes at intersections are being developed.
Surface-mount raised pavement reflectors are easily scraped off by the blade on snowplows, and thus are not practical in many locations in the United States and Canada.
Rumble strips combined with pavement markings are sometimes called rumble stripes. They may be formed with raised textured plastic pavement markers, or they may use conventional pavement marking materials sprayed onto milled rumble strips. Rumble stripes have markedly increased visibility in wet nighttime conditions, when conventional markings on flat surfaces can be difficult to see.